Brazil is less urbanized than the official data shows, if its present situation is analyzed with: a) methodologies recently adopted in developed nations, b) indicators of rural development trends in the most structured human societies. By adopting procedures based on the work of OECD’s Territorial Development Service, and incorporating additional factors that go beyond the urban-rural dichotomy, it is possible to realize that, in Brazil, 80% of the municipalities and 30% of the population make up the rural regions of the country. Contrary to what is commonly believed, there is nothing wrong with this panorama, since some of the main competitive advantages of the 21st Century will depend upon the strength of rural economies.